Fats and oils are a group of substances that do not dissolve in water. Both fats and oils are the same kind of chemical, but generally something is called an oil if it is liquid at room temperature, and a fat if it is solid at room temperature. Some kinds of fats and oils are edible and can be used in cooking, while others are used as fuel for things like cars.
The picture is of some stock cooling, and quite clearly shows a layer of fat sitting above the watery stock.
Fennel is a plant related to dill and anise. It has a flavour similar to anise but not as strong. The leaves and seeds can be used in cooking as a garnish or flavour, and the bulb at the base of the plant can be cooked as a vegetable.
Figs are the flower of a medium sized tree that is grown almost all over the world. It is originally from the Iran and Pakistan area. It can be grown in most climates, and will tolerate some degree of frost and drought. Figs can be eaten raw, made into jam, cooked into desserts or most commonly, dried.
You can grow your own figs in several different ways. You can take cuttings of bare branches in late winter to early spring before the leaves grow and put them in a sheltered spot in some sandy potting soil. You can also grow them by bending over a young branch and pinning the bend into some soil, waiting for roots to grow at the bend and then cutting the branch from the main tree. Or you can grow figs by layering.
Flour is a fine, white powder made from milling grain. You can make flour from many grains, including wheat, corn or rice.
Flour is used to make a huge variety of foods, like bread, cakes, cookies, pancakes or waffles.
You can't eat flour on its own, it has to be mixed with something else and cooked first.