A vandal is someone who breaks something that doesn't belong to them, for no reason. People who graffiti are called vandals. The picture is of a vandalised bus stop.
Scientific name: vanilla planifolia
Vanilla beans are the seed pods of a kind of orchid. When they are grown outside Mexico, they need to be pollinated by hand. Vanilla has a strong, aromatic smell and is used in many different sweets, particularly icecream. The part of vanilla that makes the flavour can also be made artificially, and is a lot cheaper than natural vanilla essense.
Something vanishes when it changes from you being able to see it, to not being able to see it. Something might vanish quickly or gradually. The picture is of a wall vanishing into the fog. A similar word to vanish is disappear.
Variety is a way of saying you have lots of different things. Often you talk of variety between lots of similar things, for example "there was a wide variety of fruit available". The picture is of a variety of spices for sale at a market.
Varnish is made by dissolving some kind of substance, often a resin, tree sap or even the shell of beetles, into something like oil or alcohol. When you put varnish on wood, it becomes hard, smooth and shiny.
A vase is a container without a lid, which is used to hold cut flowers. Vases are often very pretty. People have been making vases for thousands of years, usually made from clay and painted different colours.
A vat is a very large container, either a large tub with no lid or an enclosed tank. Vats are generally used for making large amounts of food or drink, like wine or the early processes of cheesemaking.
A vault is a structure made from intersecting arches, or many parallel arches, to make a large space out of a compressive material like stone or brick. With many vaulted spaces being built underground, a vault also became known as a place to store treasure, and today a bank vault is a locked box inside a bank where you can store valuables.