Auroras, sometimes called the Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis, are lights that are seen in the sky in areas close to the north pole. They occur when solar winds from the sun pass through the Earth's atmosphere. The shape of the lights follows the Earth's magnetic field.
Clouds are found in the sky. They are made from water. When they get too big and too full of water, it rains.
A cyclone is a very large weather event, which has low pressure at the center with winds that go around the center point. Cyclones turn anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern.
Dew forms in the early hours of the morning, before sunrise. Moisture from the air condenses onto surfaces like leaves as the air cools down.
A drought is an extended time where lower than normal amounts of rain falls. During a drought, rivers and lakes can dry up, and many plants and animals die.
A very windy storm without much rain can blow a lot of dirt up off the ground and into the air. This is called a dust storm. Sometimes there is so much dust in the air you cannot see very far at all.
A flood is water covering or submerging land. Floods can happen when it rains faster than the ground can soak up the water or let it run away, or by a rising river that bursts its banks. Floods can also be caused by very high tides or storms that push seawater inland.
Fog happens when a cloud is down at ground level. Fog covers everything in white mist, and you won't be able to see very far if you are in fog.
Frost happens when something gets cold enough for water in the air to freeze on it. Frosts usually happen overnight, and in the morning there will be small ice crystals covering everything. Frost can kill many kinds of plants, especially young seedlings.
A gale is a very strong wind. Specifically, a gale is winds between 32 and 63 miles per hour, or 14–28 meters per second.