An airport is a place airplanes land and take off. When people are going on holidays a long way away, they need to go to an airport to catch a plane.
A bank is a place you go to deposit or withdraw money, or ask for a loan to buy a house or car. Bank buildings are not as common as they used to be, as you can now do a lot of banking via an ATM or over the Internet.
A basement is a room that is underneath a house or other building. Basements are often used to store things you aren't using, and usually have water heaters, washing machines and other utilities in them. The term "basement" is US-centric. Other countries are more likely to have a cellar than a basement.
A bedroom is a room where you sleep. A bedroom usually has at least one bed in it, and also may have a wardrobe and dresser to keep clothes in. Children often have a desk in their bedroom too.
A burrow is a hole in the ground that animals like foxes and badgers dig as homes for themselves. Burrowing can also be used as a verb, as in "the rabbit was burrowing into the side of the hill".
A bus stop is a special place that you wait for a bus. The bus driver knows there will be people waiting at a bus stop and will watch out for you. Bus stops can just be a sign on a post, or a bench, or a proper shelter from the weather.
A cafe is a small restaurant that typically serves coffee, pastries, sandwiches and food that is able to be served quickly.
A camp is place where temporary shelters such as tents are set up. You might camp on your own, or a group of people might set up a camp.
A capital is the official location of the government of a country or state. The capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. The building in the picture is the White House, where the president lives.