You break something when you damage it or split it into many pieces violently or with a lot of force. The woman in the picture is breaking an egg.
Something is broken if it is so badly damaged it can't be used for its original purpose. For example, a chair is broken if a leg has come off and you can't sit on it. The cup in the picture is shattered so badly it no longer holds coffee. Some things that are broken can be fixed, but not all.
A chip is a small piece of something, most commonly a piece of potato, deep fried to make potato chips. A chip is used in gambling to represent money.
Corroding is the process by which something becomes corroded. Metals usually corrode by a slow chemical reaction.
Something is corroded if it is showing damage from being slowly eaten away. Many metals become corroded over time by a slow chemical reaction. Iron becomes rusted as it corrodes.
Corrosion is what appears on something that is corroded, or the process of something becoming corroded.
A crack is a long, thin break in something. Cracks are usually found in something big and hard, like a wall or a concrete building.
A crease is a line that has been made in a surface, usually by bending or folding it. People get creases in their skin in places that move, like around their eyes. The piece of paper in the picture has creases in it from where someone has folded it into the shape of a paper plane.
Damage is some kind of harm that is caused to something else, which doesn't completely break or destroy it but does reduce its usefulness or value. The tomato in the picture has been damaged by birds.
Debris is the broken remains of something that has been destroyed, usually from a natural event like a tornado but debris can be created by any kind of destruction.